Last Modified: February 13, 2024

Limestone Type 1

Low-cost, Rock-Solid Sub-Base for DIY

Close up of limestone type 1

By Ben Parrot - Landscape Gardener & Amateur Geologist


Stone landscaping material and construction aggregate

Geological name(s):

Calcium carbonate

Other Name(s):

Type 1 limestone, MOT type 1 limestone, limestone aggregates, crushed limestone gravel, small limestone gravel


Welcome to the only encyclopaedia for decorative aggregates and landscaping materials. Limestone type 1, also known as type 1 limestone, is a quarried limestone aggregate that is commonly used as a sub-base material in landscaping and construction projects. It is made from durable crushed limestone and favoured for its cost-effectiveness and ease of use.

The size of type 1 MOT limestone ranges from 40mm down to fines - a dust product. It is highly compactable and permeable, making it suitable for use as a sub-base material. Type 1 MOT limestone is widely used in various applications such as patios, building bases, car parks, footpaths, highways, and driveways. This type of limestone aggregate is subject to the Department of Transport Specification for Highway Works, Clause 803, which ensures its quality and suitability for use in public highways and footpaths.

This encyclopaedia entry provides a thorough overview of limestone type 1, a hardscaping material and construction aggregate. It details the product's specifications, accompanied by photographs, and outlines its benefits, applications, and incompatibilities as a landscaping material. Additionally, this entry serves as a gateway to a wealth of DIY resources, with a list of comparable alternatives, articles offering design inspiration and fundamental principles, and a collection of straightforward, step-by-step instructions for constructing your own hardscaping features.

Limestone Type 1 Specifications





fall safety





fish friendly

eco friendly



diy friendly




Sedimentary rock


Grey to buff



Close up of construction limestone

Size Range



Fall Safety

Unsuitable for play surfaces





Fish Friendly


Pile of granular sub base









Limestone chippings 20mm. Jpg


Type 1 MOT limestone is a cornerstone in construction, offering excellent load-bearing and compaction capabilities for creating stable and robust surfaces. Its excellent drainage capabilities prevent water damage and is a cost-effective and versatile option, making it ideal for various projects from roads to car parks in need of consistent, reliable support. Limestone type 1's permeability, combined with its ability to compact densely, makes it an integral material in construction and hardscaping.

  • Improves drainage
  • Hard-wearing
  • Eco-friendly, sustainable
  • Low-maintenance
  • Moisture retention
  • pH alkaline
  • Heavy load bearing
  • Sub-base
  • Easy to lay


Limestone type 1 is hard and dense which may be part of why it is primarily used for creating a stable and solid sub-base for various types of paving, driveways and artificial grass products. The angular shape and durability of using limestone chippings for sub-base applications make it an excellent choice for high-traffic areas, ensuring a long-lasting and sturdy foundation.

  1. 1
    Landscaping & DIY: Limestone type 1 is suitable for various landscaping endeavours, including establishing a stable groundwork for patios, flooring, paving and retaining walls, ensuring a robust underpinning for DIY constructions.
  2. 2
    Paths and Footpaths: It can also be utilized for constructing walkways and trails as a cost-effective choice that provides stability and long-lasting performance.
  3. 3
    Driveways: When used as a sub-base for driveways, it establishes a stable foundation capable of supporting the weight of vehicles and preventing any sinking or cracking.
  4. 4
    Hardstandings: Limestone type 1 is frequently employed in the construction of hardstandings, specialized areas intended to provide robust support for substantial weights. This material finds widespread application within industrial environments, including loading docks and storage facilities.
  5. 5
    Car Parks: Limestone has the capacity to bear the weight of vehicles and offer a secure surface for parking zones.
  6. 6
    Construction Sites: Type 1 limestone serves as a temporary road surface or access route on construction sites, facilitating the safe movement of construction vehicles and ensuring stability for heavy machinery.
  7. 7
    Road Construction: Limestone type 1 is frequently employed as a foundational material in road construction, serving to establish a sturdy base for the road's surface and ensuring an even distribution of vehicle weight.

In the following section, we list many common limestone type 1 uses in landscaping. Wherever there is a hyperlink beside an item, an article from Outdoor Aggregates about the topic is available.

Laying patio pavers over compacted subbase. Jpg

Inspiration and Informational Articles

  • MOT sub-base type 2
  • Landscaping with MOT type 1
  • Limestone chippings for artificial grass
  • Sub-base for driveways
  • MOT type 1 pathways

DIY-Friendly How-To Guides

  • How to lay a MOT type 1 sub-base 
  • How to make a MOT type 1 pathway

Need to work out how many stone chippings your  project needs? Try our free gravel calculator.

Other Applications

Some other excellent applications for limestone type 1 include:

Crushed stone path in a park

Unsuitable For

The following list represents the kinds of applications that type 1 limestone may not be suitable for:

  1. 1
    Areas with fine plantings: If you have creepers or low-growing plants in your garden gravel can make it harder for these plants to thrive, as it may interfere with their root systems as they try to grow.
  2. 2
    Road bases where there may be acid loving plantings due to leaching alkalinity.
  3. 3
    Play surfaces

Similar Alternatives to Limestone Type 1

The following is a list of decorative aggregates which are alternatives to limestone type 1. They may offer you a more suitable variation on the primary colour, a more economical option, or a close substitute for cases where the base material may be unsuitable for the project you are creating, e.g. limestone is not fish-friendly, where granite is.










0-63mm (0.4-2.6")





0-40mm (0.4-2")





0-40mm (0.4-2")



Crushed concrete



0-50mm (0.4-2")



MOT type 1 scalpings






Under £80







Preparing for garden patio installation scaled

Maintenance for the sub-base is generally not required unless significant repairs are needed.

Purchasing Tips

Brick pavers patio

When purchasing limestone type 1 for your landscaping project, it's vital to consider the quality and source. Only buy certified materials that meet the required standards. Request compliance documents to be aware of the possibility of contamination. This could cause significant issues in the future.

If you're looking for recycled options, ensure that they have the necessary structural integrity. Compare prices from multiple suppliers and ensure that the delivery options and costs are suitable for your site. Timing of delivery should be considered to avoid delays and storage issues. Choosing the right type of limestone type 1 will guarantee a successful and long-lasting outcome for your landscaping project.

Our MOT calculator is a tool that can provide you with a quick and impartial estimate for the material requirements of your project based on the measurement of the space. This is one of the most efficient and easiest ways to ensure that you order the correct amount of material, avoiding shortages or overspending. Ordering a limestone type 1 bulk bag or loose loads often provides better value than buying smaller quantities. Therefore, accurate calculations are crucial for saving both time and money. Additionally, consider the delivery logistics, such as vehicle access to the site.


What is limestone type 1?

Limestone type 1 is a crushed limestone aggregate used primarily as a sub-base for paving and construction due to its stability and compaction properties.

What is MOT type 1 sub-base?

MOT type 1 sub-base is a high-quality, well-graded material, including limestone, used to provide a stable foundation for roads and paving.

What is the difference between Type 1 and MOT type 2?

MOT Type 1 has larger and angular particles suitable for support and drainage, while MOT Type 2 has smaller and more compact particles that provide a smoother finish.

What are the uses for limestone type 1?

Limestone type 1 is used for driveways, sub-bases for paving, paths, and as a foundation for projects requiring a stable base.

What are the benefits of using limestone type 1 in construction?

Limestone type 1 offers durability, stability and a neutral aesthetic, making it ideal for various construction applications.

Alternatives to limestone type 1 for construction projects?

Alternatives include other aggregates such as MOT type 1, recycled concrete, and MOT type 2 for less demanding applications.

There are many wonderful types of gravel and aggregates available for your project needs. Check them out!

About the author 

Ben Parrot is a landscape gardener and amateur geologist. He is the founder of Outdoor Aggregates, with the mission to create the first encyclopaedia for decorative aggregates. From natural stone through to decorative bark, these aggregates are critical to garden and landscape design, universally.

The problem: There isn't any place where all the different types of decorative landscaping materials and construction aggregates can be found, nor are the specifications of each type readily available. So, enriched by his extensive experience, and inspired by the timeless elegance and raw beauty of stone and rock, etched by nature's artistry over millennia, Outdoor Aggregates was born.